The introduction of new vaccines in 2019 proof that the national vaccination plan is in constant change and improvement. Let’s meet the three new vaccines.
To understand which new vaccines in 2019, it is important to explain the importance of vaccination as well as explain which vaccines implemented in the vaccination system current.
Vaccines are the greatest advance of modern medicine and increasingly we have more and better vaccines, that change completely the panorama of infectious diseases in developed countries and allowed to save more lives and prevent more cases of disease than any medical treatment.
Vaccines are products immunobiological products made by micro organisms, parts of these or products thereof, that after inoculated on a healthy individual produce a response similar to that of the infection natural inducing immunity without risk to the vaccinated. And, so, even vaccination is the most effective way to prevent the disease.
But in addition to this individual protection, most vaccines have the capacity, from certain rates of vaccination coverage, to interrupt the circulation of micro-organisms between people, resulting in what is called “immunity” group. This immunity group allows you to protect all those who cannot be vaccinated or do not respond to vaccination.
WHAT WAS THE NATIONAL VACCINATION PLAN BEFORE THE NEW VACCINES?
According to the directorate general of health, the national vaccination plan (PNV) was established in 1965 and since that date is in permanent revision and improvement.
The vaccines that are part of this plan are selected based on the epidemiology of the disease and the scientific evidence of their impact. Until 2019, the PNV was:
- Hepatitis B: the hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) is given at 0, 2 and 6 months of age;
- Invasive disease Haemophilus influenza b: Hib vaccine is given at 2, 4, 6 and 18 months of age;
- Diphtheria, Tetanus and whooping Cough: a vaccine trivalent (Tdap) given at 2, 4, 6, 18 months and then at 5 years of age;
- Polio: the vaccine VIP is given at 2, 4 and 6 months with booster at age 18 months and 5 years of age;
- Infections by Streptococcus pneumoniae: the conjugate vaccine against infections by Streptococcus pneumoniae of 13 serotypes (Pn13) is given at 2 and 4 months with a booster at 12 months of age;
- Invasive disease by Neisseria meningitidis C: the vaccine against invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis C (MenC) is given in a single dose to 12 years;
- Rubella, Measles and mumps epidemic: vaccine trivalent VASPR is given at 12 months of age and up to 5 years;
- Infections by viruses of the human Papillomavirus: vaccine (HPV9) against infections by human Papillomavirus 9 genotypes is given to a girl with 10 years (divided in two doses given with an interval of 6 months);
- Tetanus: the tetanus (Td) should be administered at 10, 25, 45 and 65 years of age, and that from this age is given in 10 in 10 years.
THE THREE NEW VACCINES IN 2019
Once the national vaccination plan is in constant improvement, have emerged in 2019, three new vaccines. They are the vaccine against rotavirus, which causes the lab, against meningitis B, which was only given to children in clinical situations of serious free of charge and there is still enlargement of the vaccine against the Human Papilloma all the boys, since the girls already had this vaccine in the PNV.
These vaccines, which from 2019 will be free, and will belong to the plan of vaccination, were costly. Being that the vaccine against rotavirus had an average price total of 150€, the meningitis B 95€ per dose (the number of doses depended on age, being required at least 2 doses). Already the vaccination against the HPV varied between 140€ and 290€, depending on the chosen market.
All in all, the numbers for the Portuguese families are very friendly, once they have saved around 500€, in the introduction of these new vaccines in 2019.
But what are these three vaccines? Let’s get to know them a little better.
1. ROTAVIRUS VACCINE
Rotavirus is a viral infection of the digestive system whose symptoms are similar to those of a gastroenteritis usual. These include fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Is an infection very common in children and causes an acute gastroenteritis. The vaccine against the virus that is administered orally and is given from 6 weeks of life.
There are two types available on the market: the Rotateq, which provides for the administration of 3 doses at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, and Rotarix, which provides just 2 doses given at 2 and 4 months of age.
2. VACCINE AGAINST MENINGITIS B
Meningitis type B is a rare disease caused by Meningococcus B, which has a mortality rate considered to be high: 10%.
There are few cases in Portugal, however, it is a disease that progresses rapidly and can cause death in a few hours. It is a disease that mostly affects children and adolescents, being very effective in the first year of life.
The symptoms are similar to those of a flu, such as high fever, vomiting, and drowsiness. The vaccine can be administered between 2 months and 50 years of age, and that this is most effective when given at 2 months.
3. HPV VACCINE IN BOYS
The Human Papilloma virus (HPV) is responsible for various infections to sexual transmission. The consequence of the most severe of these infections, which are often persistent and silent, it is the cancer of the cervix, a problem that causes the death of many women.
This vaccine has already entered the PNV for girls with more than 10 years, since women are more susceptible to having this virus and by the cancer type that causes. However, this virus can also cause infection and persistent diseases in men, being so entered in the plan.
Several other types of cancer can be the result of this virus, as well as cause problems of fertility in men. The vaccine is given in the same manner, a dose from the age of 10, and the second dose 6 months later.