Lymphocytes High and Low: Functions and Values of Reference to Interpret the Analyses

What is the difference between lymphocytes of high and low? The difference with respect to reference values but there are issues more important since the lymphocytes are responsible for the body’s defenses, so that you should be aware of their values. Learn how to evaluate the values but don’t forget to show your doctor.

The lymphocytes are the cells that make the recognition of strange organisms (such as bacteria, viruses, and other toxins), starting the process of activation of the immune system, and may be designated by lymphocytes high and low, depending on their reference values.

Under normal conditions are the second group of leukocytes (white blood cells) more common in circulation, representing 15 to 45% of the total leukocytes in the blood.

The three main types of lymphocytes are B cells, T cells and NK cells (natural killers). Any molecule recognized by the body as strange is called antigen. The lymphocytes are responsible for the production of antibodies that will fight against these antigens.

When we have a process viral in the course, it is common that the number of lymphocytes increase, exceeding even the number of neutrophils, making them the type of leukocytes present in the circulation.

In the presence of the HIV virus (human immunodeficiency Virus – AIDS), the cells attacked by the virus are the lymphocytes. Hence the term immunodeficiency virus, because while the number of lymphocytes decreased, the immune system is compromised, and, therefore, the body is susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Thus, we can have 2 abnormal situations in relation to the lymphocyte count:

Lymphocytes High and Low Functions and Values of Reference to Interpret the Analyses 1

  • Lymphocytosis – is the term used when there is an increase in the number of lymphocytes.
  • Linfopenia – is the term used when there is a reduction in the number of lymphocytes.

The reference values of lymphocytes are 1,00 – 3,20 (10^9/L), that is, between 1000 and 3200 per cubic millimeter of blood.

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF EACH OF THE 3 TYPES OF LYMPHOCYTES

LYMPHOCYTE B

From bone marrow, represent about represent 5% to 10% of lymphocytes. Are the cells that most rapidly respond to a repeated exposure to the same antigen (in cases of chickenpox or measles, for example).

LYMPHOCYTE T

Are about 65 % to 75% of the lymphocytes. These cells act on cells and strange infected by viruses, direct the immune response and keep the immune response under control (prevent the development of autoimmune diseases, causing the white blood cells do not fight the cells of the organism itself).

NK CELLS (NATURAL KILLERS)

They represent approximately 10% to 15% of the total population of circulating lymphocytes. Target cells are neoplastic (tumor) and protect against a wide variety of microorganisms infectious.

HOW TO INTERPRET THE RESULTS OF THE CLINICAL ANALYSIS?

Only your doctor can make a correct evaluation of the complete blood count. The cbc is one of the blood tests most prescribed, once to have a vision much global state of health of the person.

Yet, as soon as you receive the medical analysis, take a peek at the results, only the doctor can make the correct diagnosis and, if appropriate, indicate the most appropriate treatment.

Lymphocytes High and Low Functions and Values of Reference to Interpret the Analyses 2

If when you open to check that the values are higher or lower than the reference, should not immediately become alarmed, since it can have multiple meanings, but it is important to order the medical evaluation of the same in order to explain the cause.

CAUSES OF THE VALUES OF THE LYMPHOCYTES OF HIGH AND LOW

LYMPHOCYTES HIGH

When the body goes through a situation of stress, convalescence, or after an infection, the number of lymphocytes in the blood increases. This also happens in the case of diseases such as:

  • Brucellosis (a disease that can be contracted by the consumption of milk or unpasteurized dairy products from animals infected);
  • Lymphomas;
  • Mononucleosis infectious (or disease of the kiss, is a contagious disease very prevalent and, in general, benign caused by the Epstein-Barr virus);
  • Syphilis (sexually transmitted disease);
  • Tuberculosis (the disease infeto-contagious disease that affects the lungs);
  • Hepatitis (liver inflammation);
  • Flu.

LYMPHOCYTES LOW

Values below the reference values may be related with:

  • Cirrhosis of the liver;
    Immunodeficiency (immune system depressed);
  • Infection by HIV;
  • Autoimmune diseases such as lupus;
  • Radiation therapy.

Lymphocytes High and Low Functions and Values of Reference to Interpret the Analyses 3