Sos: First Aid Measures in Case of a Heart Attack

It is essential to know the first aid in the event of myocardial infarction to, in an emergency, we can be useful. Learn how to act in these cases.

When we talk about providing first aid in case of myocardial acute infarction, we always never going to happen and that there will always be someone expert that will do a good job. However, and despite being a sensitive topic even for health professionals, it is always important that we’re all informed because we never know when, in the middle of nowhere, we come across a case emerging in which the person next to us needs us. And in these cases, it is important to be able to make the right decision.

So let’s lay out some points, so that you can be aware of the attitude to adopt in the face of this specific situation.

According to the General Direction of Health (DGS), the first aid has three objectives: Prevention, Alert and Rescue. These are a set of measures that must be taken quickly in the event of an accident or other emergency in an effort to preserve the patient’s life, decrease your disability and your suffering.

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Any person should be aware of how much your help or knowledge can be valuable, since these techniques do not replace or delay medical services, but to prevent actions intempestivas, alert, and even help avoiding the worsening condition of the patient. But, before you understand what are the first aid measures in case of a heart attack, let’s understand what is a myocardial infarction to be able to understand its warning signs.


This, also popularly known by “heart attack”, occurs when one or more arteries near the heart, become blocked causing the blood to not be able to reach the heart, and thus, this does not receive oxygen on the amount that you need.

If the blood is not enough, the cells in that area die. That is why, that the myocardial infarction is a medical emergency that must be treated immediately.


There are some characteristic signs of this problem that help you to recognize when you are facing a Myocardial Infarction:

  • Stabbing acute in the chest, with sensation of burning or tightness;
  • Pain spreading into the left arm;
  • Pain spreading to the neck and jaw;
  • Difficulty breathing;
  • Paleness;
  • Cold sweats;
  • Suffering from nausea and vomiting;
  • Dizziness;
  • Mental confusion;
  • Loss of consciousness.


If you’re facing a case of Myocardial Infarction, these are the steps that you should follow to be able to save a life:

  1. To analyze the safety conditions of the location and the state of consciousness of the victim, as well as to recognize the symptoms of a stroke to be able to provide first aid.
  2. Connect to the112 (the emergency number in Portugal). When we conduct this call, we must have some care, such as states clearly the location where the victim and report simply what we see. After you disconnected the call we have to focus solely on the person who needs our help.
  3. Calm the victim, because in such a situation it is possible that the person feels anxious and restless which can worsen the symptoms of a heart attack. Should we ask to accompany us on the breath, making it deep and quiet.
  4. Loosen the clothes and leave the victim comfortable.
  5. Prevent making physical efforts.
  6. 6. If the person who is suffering the heart attack is not allergic to aspirin, you should take two tablets of aspirin as soon as possible since this works as an anticoagulant and will help in the removal of the blood clot.
  7. Do not move the victim or move it to other locations, unless this is very uncomfortable. All the movements and all the effort that this can do can aggravate your condition and harm your health.
  8. Do not offer fluids, with the exception of water to take with aspirin, or food.
  9. Massage heart. This is the last resort for those who are to be rescued, and only applies when patient is no heartbeat and no breathing. To be sure of the condition of the patient, we must touch the face near the mouth and nose of the person to decide whether we start or not the heart massage.

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In relation to the cardiac massage, this is considered to be the most important when we talk about first aid, especially first aid in the event of a heart attack. This is carried out in an attempt to replace the heart, a mechanical form, and thus continue to pump blood throughout the body, thus maintaining the oxygenation also in the brain.


  1. We should begin by placing the body of the person lying down with your back on the floor and stand to the side near the trunk.
  2. Then, as in the images 1 and 2, we place one hand over the other, in the middle of the chest of the victim, and leave the arms straight. Here it is important to remember that when we start to do strength, this should be driven with the shoulders, not with elbows.
  3. In image 3, we have the next step. Apply pressure on the chest of the victim, so that the rib cage down about 5 inches. This movement should be repeated 120 times per minute, or about 2 times per second.

This whole process is very tiring and so the ideal is to be able to merge the heart massage with someone that is near you, as this massage should be maintained until the arrival of a medical team that can occupy our place and continue the treatment.

Here, we can breathe a sigh of relief and be aware that we did a good job of first aid measures in case of a heart attack and maybe we could have saved a life.

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